■ 影音網站的未來(三) PGC孵化IP,直播更接近長尾

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2016/10/24 第348期 | 訂閱/退訂 | 看歷史報份

本期主題 不論長影音還是短影音,都必須進入 PGC領域,也能孵化IP。
文章回顧 影音網站的未來(二)短影音適合往社交和工具發展
影音網站的未來(一)長尾效應與頭部效應無法兼顧
 

不論長影音還是短影音,都必須進入 PGC領域,也能孵化IP。
◎PGC 的出現有其必然性

從下圖看到,在OGC以及UGC中間有個區域稱為PGC(Professional Generated Content)。這種型態的內容是由專業人士製作,但其大型程度比不上 OGC,卻也不是素人生產的UGC。這個部分的內容不是頭部,也不是長尾,而是腰部。目前很熱門的網大屬於這個領域。

經營長影音服務的平台,需要PGC來作為大型製作頭部內容的補充,把腰部養肥;經營短影音服務的平台,需要 PGC來提升內容的可看度,形成興趣團體。從這個角度看,PGC並不是雙方互相深入對手陣地的前哨站,而更多是完善自己本身的經營方向。

對長影音平台來說,頭部內容總是少數,看完了之後要給用戶看啥?有一定水平的PGC比UGC強多了。對短影音平台來說,雖然真實但說不上水平的UGC,雖然只是用來搭訕的介質,但要想進一步細分人群(圍繞興趣),完善用戶結構,PGC比OGC是更好的選擇。

也因為這樣的需求,PGC的發展非常火熱。很多人湊了一筆錢就開始拍攝網大,網綜,或網劇。製作完成後,發行到各大影音平台去,看是以賣斷的方式,還是以點擊分成的方式來獲取收入。產業鏈上也開始有了專門的發行公司,也有不少創業公司拿到投資。

◎影音UGC 不能培養出IP

影音服務當道,最搶手的就是IP了(Intellectual Property )。這 個原文為智慧財產權的英文詞彙,在中國簡稱IP後其含義變成了有一定受眾基礎的原創作品代稱。知名IP容易變成頭部內容,雖然高價人人爭搶。結果是長影音平台之間為了搶奪大IP而付出高昂代價。

這就是頭部效應的特色,真正大IP才是贏家,所有長影音平台最終都是幫IP擁有者打工。因此長影音平台開始做自製節目。美國Netflix,中國各大平台,唯有自製節目成本低,而且有獨播優勢。獨播的頭部內容效果驚人卻不一定營利,但若是自製,就能有較好利潤。

然而,UGC能孵化出IP來嗎?從過往發展來看難度大。網絡文學身為某種 UGC,確實孵化出不少IP,知名的網絡小說很多改編成電影,遊戲。文字創作的成本低,一台電腦會打字就可以開工。然而影音節目,要說故事要剪接要配樂,很難在沒有團隊的情況下生產出優質節目。

即便短影音平台培養出不少網紅,而且很多網紅背後是有團隊在支持 的,都不能說是孵化了IP。華特•迪士尼過世之後留下了米老鼠和唐老鴨,而Papi醬在百年之後會留下什麼?網紅不是IP,只有內容才是。在影音UGC難以期待的情況下,只有PGC才是起點。

◎直播服務更接近長尾效應

說了那麼多長短影音平台,那麼全民直播呢?作為影音服務的一種型 態,既然號稱全民,他肯定是以 UGC為主的草根內容居多。順著前面邏輯,應該是由長尾效應驅動,進而發展成社交與工具的路子。然而,直播平台卻比長影音和短影音平台還糾結於其未來的發展。

其一,網紅的熱門,以及其逐漸專業團隊化經營,會讓人認為直播是走頭部內容路線的平台。雖然現在接近PGC,但是否要往OGC方向去?這條路會往大型自製節目走,開始請大牌明星來上直播節目等,甚至誕生新型態的網綜。確實有直播平台這麼做而且成效不錯。

其二,全民直播的內容你知道的,都不曉得能不能稱之為內容了。因此很自然的經營者會想要往提高內容品質的方向走。然而,一但往大型節目和知名藝人的方向走去,頭部效應會開始排擠長尾效應,只有大節目和名藝人能拿到資源,最終會無法再「全民」下去。

最後,全民直播是一種無法累積IP的影音服務,他只能賺現在的錢( 各種道具打賞,也賺得播盆滿盈),不能賺以後的錢(幾乎所有內容的回放價值都很低)。至少在筆者的感覺中,直播往社交和工具去發展,比往內容去發展要來得自然些。

有沒有任何影音平台可以通吃長短影音和直播服務在一個平台上?在 中國的網際網路產業裡,什麼都想幹也已經是常態了。大而全的影音服務平台,筆者也不知道能不能行,但恐怕,得要讓長尾效應和頭部效應先打一架再說了。

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影音網站的未來(二)短影音適合往社交和工具發展
◎影音 UGC為何做不好 中國與美國的 UGC很不同。美國可以誕生並維持 Youtube這種以用戶 自製短影音節目為主的平台,中國卻不行。記得在2008年左右看過一 份報告,中國用戶在影音網站上觀看影片的平均時長是數十分鐘,而 美國用戶在 Youtube上觀看影片平均時長是十幾分鐘。 很顯然在當時中國UGC 影音網站野蠻生長的年代裡,大量網民在平台 上看盜版電影及電視劇,所以平均時長很長。 …
 

影音網站的未來(一)長尾效應與頭部效應無法兼顧
◎長尾效應與頭部效應 「影音服務」其實最早是由廣播電視與有線電視提供的,透過電視機 播放。然而從行動網際網路興起以來,年輕觀眾迅速轉移到了電腦與 手機上。影音網站與 APP紛紛轉向提供大製作有版權的長影音節目, 加上崛起的短影音分享 APP,直播 APP,影音市場發展熱鬧非凡。 在這個網際網路可以加上一切的時代,如果加上影音內容會發生什麼 ?首先,網際網路最基礎的理論之 …
 

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